Ran into this one today. Here's the scenario:
View List - Using it to update View Names - Edit the View Name field but before advancing from the field when you are done close the view instead. Hoping that it would fill in the value and let me get back to the plan. The expected message about renaming levels and views appears.
Then the unexpected SaveAs or Exit Dialog of Death.
On further experimentation I see that changing the Type Comments value in a door schedule will cause the same result.
The "quick fix" is DON'T CLOSE a schedule until you have committed the edit to the schedule by moving the cursor to another field and responding to the error message that appears. This is in the same vein as "Doc, it hurts when I do this!". Doc says, "Well don't do THAT!".
I suspect that the issue is related to the User Response dialog's that appear. It seems that Revit doesn't like trying to commit the change to the element while the schedule view window is attempting to close. It also happens in each version of Revit.
Here's a quick video to see it in action.